Module 11
Cultural Defenses and Cultural Evidence

What Is "Culture"?

***This Module is adapted from: National Judicial Education Program, Unit V, The Cultural Defense and Cultural Evidence, in When Bias Compounds: Insuring Equal Justice for Women of Color in the Courts (1998).***

Culture is "[k]nowledge about customs, values, language, behavior, etiquette, traditions, belief systems, world views, food, dress, and musical tastes that is shared by members of a group. This shared knowledge is learned from others and passed on from generation to generation. Culture tells us how to behave and influences our interpretation of how others behave. Culture is the set of assumptions and understandings, often unexamined, that shapes our ideas and impacts our every decision."
— Nagae & O'Leary, Race Fairness and Cultural Awareness, 1996 at 5.



Nonperiodical Literature

Peggy A. Nagae, Kathleen M. O'leary, The National Judicial College, Race Fairness and Cultural Awareness Faculty Development Workshop Manual at 5 (1996)

Women of Color as Victims of Gender-Based Violence When Bias Compounds: Ensuring Equal Access to Justice for Women in the Courts (1998)

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